Posts Tagged ‘Sauce’

Flavor Enhancers – The Magic of Vinegar, Part 2

For something that is almost effortless to make, vinaigrette is a versatile and potent sauce. Ingredients typically on hand in the home kitchen can be combined in myriad ways using oil, acid, seasonings, and ‘accents’.  For the simplest vinaigrette, start with oil and acid in a ratio of 3 to 1; in other words 3 parts oil to 1 part acid. Lighter tasting oils seem to work better in higher ratios than the heavier oils, but let your tastes be the guide.

Below are some examples of basic ingredients to give you a taste of how broad the possibilities can be. As a guide I’ve indicated typical measurements in each group for safe experimenting.  Learning how to use this basic sauce “will ratchet up your entire cooking repertoire” says Michael Ruhlman, one who is on the short list of my favorite chefs.  How can a simple salad dressing be such a big deal? The use of vinaigrettes may be more wide spread than you realize. Consider that you can cook vinaigrette and drizzle the mixture over grilled meats or vegetables. Another form is a marinade to impart favors to food before cooking.  While you may not think of oil and vinegar when added separately in a dish as a vinaigrette, in effect you’ve just made one.

Preparing smaller quantities of vinaigrette allows you to make it fresh and change up the flavors more often. Plus, it will be infinitely better than any store-bought brand, not to mention much healthier.  Feel free to mix ingredients within the same category. For example, use both vinegar and lemon juice instead of just vinegar, or part extra virgin olive oil and part walnut oil. There are no rules. If you choose fruit as an accent, blueberry and cherry tend to do well with lemon juice, strawberry with balsamic vinegar, and raspberry with lime juice. A couple of my favorite recipes are below.

Vinaigrette’s Basic Ingredients:

Oil (use in ¼ cup increments): Olive, extra virgin olive, grape seed, avocado, sesame, macadamia, flax seed, hemp seed, hazelnut, tea, soy bean, walnut, almond, peanut, safflower, sunflower, canola, corn, cottonseed.

Acids (use in 1 tablespoon increments):  Citrus juice (lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit), vinegar (white, white wine, red wine, balsamic, rice, apple cider, malt, coconut, cane, and flavored vinegars).

Seasonings (dried, use in ¼ teaspoon increments):  Cumin, coriander, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, smoked paprika, garlic powder. Use in ½ tsp increments for granulated sweeteners: brown sugar, maple sugar, white sugar. Use 1 tsp increments for liquid sweetener:  maple syrup, honey, agave nectar. To taste:  flavored salts, pepper, cayenne.

Accents (use with abandon):  Fresh herbs, minced (mint, basil, rosemary, cilantro, chives, oregano, etc), fresh vegetables, minced (shallot, ginger, garlic, bell pepper, onions, avocado, tomato), fresh fruit, minced (watermelon, papaya, pear, blueberry, raspberry, strawberry), roasted vegetables, minced (peppers, shallots, onions, chilies), sauces and pastes (mustard, peanut butter, toasted sesame oil, Worcestershire, soy sauce, fish sauce, hot pepper sauce, fruit jelly, mayonnaise, hoisin, coconut milk), and salty elements (Parmesan cheese, anchovies, minced chorizo).

Once you have assembled the ingredients consider the texture. Blend or ‘emulsify’ the mixture for a creamy texture using an immersion blender (if so, you can chop the accents instead of mincing before hand), or simply shake your vinaigrette in a covered jar for a looser mixture. Taste it. If the acid is too pronounced, add a little more oil. Too much oil?  Add more acid. If the flavor isn’t *bright* enough, a pinch of salt may do the trick. Remember that acid can be balanced by sugar and bitterness can be balanced by salt. Usually just a little will do.

Joy’s Favorites: 

Spinach Salad  Dressing (emulsified using a immersion blender): ¾ cup extra virgin olive oil, 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar or champagne pear vinegar, 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice, 1 teaspoon sugar, 4 teaspoons honey, 2 tablespoons crumbled cooked bacon, and to taste: salt, pepper, garlic powder.  To the spinach salad I add sliced purple onion, toasted almonds, hardboiled egg, sliced mushrooms, and dried cranberries. Pour dressing over.

Steak Salad Dressing (emulsified using a immersion blender):  ¾ cup extra virgin olive oil, 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar, 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce, 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard, 2 teaspoons grated Parmesan cheese, and to taste: salt, pepper.  On a bed of torn romaine lettuce I add sliced cooked steak, diced tomatoes, sliced purple onions, and croutons. Pour dressing over.

Another great combo? Peanut oil, chunky peanut butter, ginger, hot chili, rice vinegar, and a pinch of sugar. What a great salad dressing!

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Flavor Enhancers – Why we love Butter

Butter makes almost everything taste better. All good cooks know that fat means flavor and there is hardly a more versatile fat than butter. Indispensible in the bakery, butter reigns in the savory kitchen. Chef Anthony Bourdain, writer and host of the Travel Channel’s No Reservations, says “In a professional kitchen, it is almost always the first and last thing in a pan”. Butter can rescue a dish from the edge of disaster and bring majesty to the most humble of sauces. Simply said, there is really no substitute for butter.

Butter is mostly fat (about 80%), 15% water and a very small amount of milk solids. Water is what makes the froth when you heat butter in a pan. As water evaporates, the milk solids begin to brown, resulting in a flavorful, nutty sauce that makes an excellent base for other things. Take care – cooking butter too long can burn the milk solids and make the sauce bitter.

Pure butter fat without water and milk solids is called Ghee, or clarified butter. This form of butter can be heated to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than most olive oils can handle without creating trans fats. Ghee can be stored for extended periods without refrigeration providing it is sealed tight and kept free of moisture. The origin of ghee is South Asia with a rich heritage of use in foods and religious ceremonies.

Make a Simple Pan Sauce

If careful when melting butter to not let the water and solids separate from the fat you will have a ‘product completely different from butter in any other form’ says chef Michael Ruhlman. The technique uses a few chunks of butter and a tablespoon or two of hot water which are continually whisked over medium low heat (the amounts of each are not critical). The resulting sauce, known as an emulsion, keeps the butter opaque, creamy and homogenous.

The name for this elegant simple sauce is Buerre Monte and it is wonderful with shrimp and fish, or drizzled over pan roasted meats and cooked vegetables.  Imagine all the flavorings you can add to the ‘base’ of butter and hot water just described, such as: a teaspoon of Dijon mustard for a French Sauce, with some parsley and minced shallot (great on roasted chicken). Try a teaspoon each of white wine and rinsed capers. For a spicy sauce, use minced chipotle chilies, fresh cilantro, shallots and lime juice. Another great combination is dried tarragon, lemon juice, and dry mustard, just a little of each to your tastes.

You can make a little or a lot of Buerre Monte, in just a few minutes. Serve it quickly as this finishing sauce will eventually separate. There is so much more to be said for butter. Please share your quick pan sauce ideas!